Collection of Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom (DIKW) research reference literature

 (until 2021/05/06 filtered with Researchgate )

By Yucong Duan, Yuxiao Lei, Ke Fan, Yingbo Li, Ting Hu, Yue Huang, Jiacheng Deng, Jun Zhao, Kai Cao, Ziting Ren, Lougao Zhan

DIKW research group of Hainan University, China


Abstraction: DIKW researches have been taken in many domains spanning over decades at least. With the help of Researchgate filtering function, we have sorted nearly 400 related literature to ease the finding of this topic in hope of accelerating related research and investigation in deeper foundations and towards rich applications iteratively.


(1)      Yucong Duan, Christophe Cruz:

Formalizing Semantic of Natural Language through Conceptualization from Existence. International journal of innovation. (2011)


(2)      Alex Norta:

Designing a Smart-Contract Application Layer for Transacting Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. Springer, Singapore. (2016)


(3)      Hien D. Nguyen:

Model for representation the relations between geometric objects and Drawing a figure of the problem in Plane geometry. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering. 8(6):3081-3086 (2019)


(4)      Nancy Staggers, Ramona Nelson:

Data, information, knowledge, wisdom. Routledge International Handbook of Advanced Quantitative Methods in Nursing Research. (2015)


(5)      Jay Bernstein:

The Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Hierarchy and its Antithesis. NASKO.2(1) (2009).


(6)      Charlene Ronquillo, Leanne M Currie, Patricia Rodney:

The Evolution of Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom in Nursing Informatics. Advances in Nursing Science. 39(1):E1 (2016)


(7)      Terry Dwain Robertson:

The Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom Hierarchy Goes to Seminary. Advances in the Study of Information and Religion. 3(1) (2013)


(8)      Nikhil Sharma:

The Origin of Data Information Knowledge Wisdom (DIKW) Hierarchy. (2008)


(9)      Syed Ahsan, Abad Shah:

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom: A Doubly Linked Chain? International Conference on Information & Knowledge Engineering 2006: 270-276


(10)   Elena Lyadina-Saville:

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom: Shaping E&P World. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (2009)


(11)   Susan Matney, Philip J Brewster, Katherine A Sward, Kristin G Cloyes, Nancy Staggers:

Philosophical approaches to the nursing informatics data-information-knowledge-wisdom framework. Advances in Nursing Science. 34(1):6 (2011).


(12)   Judith Pinn Carlisle:

A contribution to the development of a philosophical foundation for the data information knowledge wisdom hierarchy. A Renaissance of Information Technology for Sustainability & Global Competitiveness Americas Conference on Information Systems (2011)


(13)   Jifa Gu:

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom and Meta-Synthesis of Wisdom-Comment on Wisdom Global and Wisdom Cities. Procedia Computer Science. 17:713-719 (2013)


(14)   Rémi Wognin, France Henri, Olga Marino:

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom: A Revised Model for Agents-Based Knowledge Management Systems. Springer US. (2012)


(15)   Neil Postman:

Information, knowledge, wisdom. AMIC Deutsche Welle Workshop on Radio and the Internet. (2000)


(16)   Janet Seggie:

Data -> information -> knowledge -> wisdom: When is South Africa going to get her act together? South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde. 105(10):795 (2015).


(17)   Terje Aven:

A conceptual framework for linking risk and the elements of the data”Vinformation”Vknowledge”Vwisdom (DIKW) hierarchy. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 111(3): 30-36 (2013)


(18)   Sasa Baskarada, Andy Koronios:

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW): A Semiotic Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of the Hierarchy and its Quality Dimension. Social Science Electronic Publishing. 18(1): 2109-2112 (2013)


(19)   Paul Cooper:

Data, information, knowledge and wisdom. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 15(1): 44-45 (2014)


(20)   Yucong Duan:

Consilience of Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom (DIKW) modals. (2021)


(21)   Timothy Lindsay John Ferris:

Characteristics of Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom. John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. (2005)


(22)   M P Satija:

Information, Knowledge, Wisdom :A Progressive a Value Added Chain. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology. 5:  65-74 (2015)


(23)   Gene Bellinger, Durval Castro:

Data, information, knowledge, and wisdom [Online]. (2004)


(24)   Marcie Boucouvalas:

Learning throughout Life: The Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Framework. Educational Considerations. 14(2) (1987)


(25)   Andreas Nürnberger, Rudolf Seising, Constanze Wenzel:

On the fuzzy interrelationships of data, information, knowledge and wisdom. IEEE. NAFIPS 2009: 1-6.


(26)   Adam Keen:

Data, information, knowledge. Nature Biotechnology. 322(1): 203-207 (2008)


(27)   Yu Lei, Yucong Duan:

Trusted Service Provider Discovery Based on Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. 31(1): 3-19 (2021)


(28)   Anthony Liew:

DIKIW: Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence, Wisdom and their Interrelationships. business management dynamics. 2(10): 49-62 (2013)


(29)   Yucong Duan:

The Path to AI through Manipulation on Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom. CCISP (2018)


(30)   Andrew Georgiou:

The Data-Information-Knowledge Model. Handbook of Research on Informatics in Healthcare and Biomedicine. (2006)


(31)   Anna Ribeiro, Carlos Denner dos Santos Jr:

This is not a pyramid: revising the data, information, knowledge and wisdom classical model. (2020)


(32)   Jac van der Gun:

Data, information, knowledge and diagnostics on groundwater. Advances in Groundwater Governance. (2017)


(33)   Xiaogang Ma:

Data-Information-Knowledge-Action Model. Encyclopedia of Big Data. (2018)


(34)   Susan A Matney, Lory J Maddox, Nancy Staggers:

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom In Nursing Change of Shift Reports. 2014 Western Institute of Nursing Annual Communicating Nursing Research Conference. (2013)


(35)   Xifan Yao:

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom Research and Applications. DIKW-RA (2021)


(36)   Zhuge Hai:

Symbiosis on Material-Data-Information-Knowledge Flow Network. Cyber-Physical-Social Intelligence. (2020)


(37)   Antonio Badia:

Data, information, knowledge: An information science analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology. 65(6):1279-1287 (2014).


(38)    Max M. Houck, Matthew Gamette:

Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom: A Partnership to Improve the Management of Forensic Service Organizations. Forensic Science International Synergy. 1(3). (2019).


(39)   Yucong Duan:

Formalizaition of Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom in Relationship Defined Everything of Semantics Computation. DIKW-RA (2021)


(40)   R Nelson:

Informatics: Evolution of the Nelson Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom Model: Part 1. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 23(3) (2018).


(41)    Markus Jäger, Stefan Nadschläger, Trong Nhan Phan, Josef Kung:

Data, Information & Knowledge Sources in the Agricultural Domain. 26th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications DEXA (2015)


(42)   Loris Giuseppe Navoni:

About Data, Information, Knowledge Relationships and their representation. (2015)


(43)   Tom McDermott:

Data, Information, Knowledge, and Leadership in Complex Project Management. IEEE Technology & Engineering Management Conference TEMSCON (2019)


(44)   Weibo Li, Wei Shen, Jiemin Ding:

Research of Data-Information-Knowledge Transfer System. (2010)


(45)   Jiemin Ding, Weibo Li:

Evolution and Representation on Data Information Knowledge Strategy. IEEE (2010)


(46)   Sorin Gudea:

Data, Information, Knowledge: A Healthcare Enterprise Case Study 1 Data, Information, Knowledge: A Healthcare Enterprise Case Study. Perspect Health Inf Manag. 2:8 (2005).


(47)   Yucong Duan:

Why we need Crossing "Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom (DIKW) modals " towards Strong Artificial Intelligence? DIKW-RA (2021)


(48)   Anthony Liew:

Understanding Data, Information, Knowledge And Their Inter-Relationships. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice. 2(2014)


(49)   Niko Grataridarga:

Konsep Data, Information, Knowledge dan Wisdom (DIKW) Hierarchy pada Manajemen Kearsipan. JIPI (Jurnal Ilmu Perpustakaan dan Informasi). 4. 117. 10.30829/jipi.v4i1.4839. (2019)


(50)   Klaus Kornwachs:

Data ”X Information ”X Knowledge. A Trial of a Technological Enlightenment. Springer Berlin Heidelberg(2000).


(51)   Rajiv Ramnath, Academic Advisor:

Intelligent Techniques for Data-Information-Knowledge Evolution.


(52)   Yingxu Wang:

Formal Cognitive Models of Data, Information, Knowledge, and Intelligence. WSEAS Transactions on Computers. 14:770-781.(2015)


(53)   Minoru Kanehisa , Susumu Goto , Yoko Sato , Masayuki Kawashima, Miho Furumichi, Mao Tanabe:

Data, information, knowledge and principle: back to metabolism in KEGG. Nucleic Acids Research. (2014).


(54)   Prudence W. Dalrymple:

Data, information, knowledge: The emerging field of health informatics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 37(5):41-44.(2011)


(55)   Maneesh Singh, Thom Fosselie,Frode Wiggen:

Data, Information, Knowledge and Decision-Making in Condition Monitoring. The 23rd International Congress & Exhibition on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management.(2010)


(56)   Rainer Totzke,Boris Wyssusek:

Data - Information - Knowledge? The Perspective of Media Philosophy on Knowledge and its Management. ACIS 2004 Proceedings. 37. (2004)


(57)   Walid Saba:

On the Winograd Schema: Situating Language Understanding in the Data-Information-Knowledge Continuum.(2019)


(58)   Marco Dussin,Nicola Ferro:

The Design of the User Interface of a Scientific DLS in the Context of the Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Hierarchy.Post- Forth Italian Research Conference on Digital Library Systems. (2008)


(59)   Jose Arias-Pérez,Carlos Andrés Aristizabal Botero:

Data, information, knowledge and its productivity in companies of the public sector of Medellín. Semestre Económico. 14(28):95-109 (2011).


(60)   Christopher Landauer:

Data, information, knowledge, understanding: computing up the meaning hierarchy. IEEE International Conference on Systems. IEEE (1998)


(61)   Luca Masud, Francesca Valsecchi, Paolo Ciuccarelli, Donato Ricci, Giorgio Caviglia:

From Data to Knowledge - Visualizations as Transformation Processes within the Data-Information-Knowledge Continuum. International Conference Information Visualisation. IEEE Computer Society. (2010)


(62)   Victor Tang, Fernando Yanine, Lionel Valenzuela:

Data, information, knowledge and intelligence: The mega-nano hypothesis and its implications in innovation. International Journal of Innovation Science (2016)


(63)   Markus Jäger, Stefan Nadschläger, Trong Nhan Phan:

Towards the Trustworthiness of Data, Information, Knowledge and Knowledge Processing Systems in Smart Homes. IDIMT-2015 Information Technology and Society Interaction and Interdependence (2015)


(64)   Aziyati Yusoff, Norashidah Md Din, Salman Yussof, Assad Abbas, Samee Ullah Khan:

Predictive Analytics for Network Big Data Using Knowledge-Based Reasoning for Smart Retrieval of Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom (DIKW). Big Data and Computational Intelligence in Networking (2017)


(65)   Anne Cregan:

Dagstuhl Seminar 14142 Discussion Paper: A preliminary sketch of some definitions for "Data", "Information", "Knowledge" and "Wisdom". (2014)


(66)   Jeffrey Pferd, Omar Akbar, Abhijeet Narvekar:

A Comprehensive Data-Information-Knowledge Management Solution for Long-lived Assets. the Intelligent Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, February (2008)


(67)   C Alivelu, P Sarada, G D Madhuri, M Satish Kumar, P Padmaiah, P Laksmamma, Padmavathi, M Balakrishhnan, S K Soam:

Information and Knowledge Management TOOLS, TECHNIQUES and Practices Contents Fundamentals of Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom 1. Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom-K Trends of knowledge Management Practices-A.K.Roy Latest Tools and Techniques for Knowledge Management 4. Cloud Computing Technologies and its Applications In Bioinformatics. New India Publishing Agency,New Delhi,India. (2013)


(68)   Ashley Braganza:

Rethinking the data-information-knowledge hierarchy: Towards a case-based model. International Journal of Information Management, 24(4):347-356(2004)


(69)   Gianfranco La Rocca:

The Challenge of Managing Knowledge. Yet another contribution to the longstanding data-information-knowledge discussion. (2016)


(70)   Sasi Kumar Pillay:

Data, Information, Knowledge: How Do We Attempt to Traverse across These Domains? Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management.(1999)


(71)   Maneesh Singh, Stig Hetlevik:

Data”Vinformation”Vknowledge hierarchy based decision support system for risk based inspection analysis.International Journal of System Assurance Engineering & Management. (2017).


(72)   Collaborative Agent Design Research Center:

Pre-Conference Proceedings of the Focus Symposium on Representation of Context in Software Data ”÷ Information ”÷ Knowledge. Proceedings of InterSymp-2007: The 19th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics: Baden-Baden, Germany, July 31, 2007, pages 1-114. The International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics and Society for Applied Systems Research. (2017).


(73)   Heather J Van Meter:

Revising the DIKW Pyramid and the Real Relationship Between Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom.Law Technology and Humans,2(2):69-80 (2020).


(74)   Katarina Paunović:

Data, Information, KnowledgeData, information, knowledge.Springer Netherlands(2008).


(75)   Jack Ende:

Knowledge, Wisdom, and the Practice of Geriatrics. Medical Clinics of North America, 104(5) (2020).


(76)   Alain Wille:

Why organizations need a platform for data-information- knowledge gathering and sharing for creating strategic intelligence.


(77)   Adam Hayden:

Knowledge, wisdom, and the brain.Science 359.6382:1341-1341(2018).


(78)   Robert A. Fitton:

Knowledge, Wisdom, Intelligence.Leadership (pp.149-156).(2018)


(79)   Paul Cooper:

Information, knowledge and wisdom.Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine 15.1:44-45(2014).


(80)   Alexander Badman-King:

Moral knowledge (”„wisdom”¦) as the purpose of philosophy and life.Living-With Wisdom. (2021)


(81)   Henrique EISI Toma:

Information, knowledge and wisdom.Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine 15.1:44”V45(2006).


(82)   Massimo Durante:

Data, information and knowledge.Computational Power. (2021)


(83)   Daniel A, Kaufman:

Knowledge, Wisdom, and the Philosopher.Philosophy London (2006).


(84)   Cristina González:

Knowledge, Wisdom, and Luck.Science (2004).


(85)   Irene de Puig:

Beyond Knowledge, Wisdom.Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children. 11. 22-24(1994).


(86)   GW Fuller:

A vision for a Global Geospatial Information Network (GGIN) - Creating, maintaining and using globally distributed Geographic data, information, knowledge and services. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 65.5:524(1999).


(87)   Hani K. M. Abd Elsalam:

True Satisfaction in Product E-Marketing Data-Information-Knowledge Implementation Mechanism; with Focus on Business Product-Satisfaction Ontology Semantic Acquisition Methodology.2019 IEEE 6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications (ICIEA) IEEE, (2019).


(88)   H. Kemal Ilter:

Knowledge-Wisdom Relationship.


(89)   Vladimir Ivanovich Mashukov:

Information, Knowledge, Data.


(90)   Thomas Mayer”G

Information, Knowledge, Understanding and Wisdom.Econ Journal Watch 2.1:66-69(2005).


(91)   Hani K. M. Abd Elsalam:

True Satisfaction in e-Marketing Product Data-Information-Knowledge Acquisition Evaluation Ontology; with focus on User Satisfaction Implementation Semantic Mechanism Methodology.2018 Thirteenth International Conference on Digital Information Management (ICDIM) (2019).


(92)   Jon Mason:

Knowledge, Wisdom, & the Why Dimension. Wisdom Research Forum ”V Wisdom in EducationAt: Monaco Hotel, ChicagoAffiliation: University of Chicagp(2013).


(93)   Mutaz Habal:

Knowledge, Wisdom, and Impartiality in the New Scientific Information Arena.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 22.4:1173-1174(2011).


(94)   Syed Vickar Ahamed:

Part I. Knowledge, Wisdom and Values.Evolution of Knowledge Science :1-2(2017).


(95)   Elaine P. Maimon:

Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom: Transforming Education.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 55.1:94-99. (2012).


(96)   Ufuk Karadavut, kazım karabulut, Mine Aksoy, Derya Yayman, İbrahim Yikilmaz, Duygu Hıdıroğlu, Gözde Mert, Sibel Aydoğan, Mustafa Aslan, Bilgehan Tekin, Emre Bilgin Sarı, Semih Serkant Aktuğ, V. Lale Tuzuner, Reha Durucasu, Necmiye Tülin İrge, Yüksel Yalçın, Nuran Varışlı, Kübra Mert, Esra G. Kaygısız, Serhat Erat, Vasfi Kahya, Esin Ceylan, Osman Yılmaz, Osman Özdemir, Kadir Özdemir, Mükerrem Bahar Başkır, Serkan demirdöğen, Erdal Şen, Nour El Hoda Tarabah:

Data, Information and Knowledge Management. (2020)


(97)   Gözde Mert, Erdal Şen, Osman Yılmaz:

Data, Information and Knowledge Management. Nobel Bilimsel Eserler. (2020)


(98)   P.B. Greenberg:

Information, knowledge and wisdom in medical practice.alabama journal of medical sciences. (2012).


(99)   Karl E. Misulis, Mark E. Frisse:

Data, Information, and Knowledge.Essentials of Clinical Informatics. (2019)


(100)             Hewitt S M:

Data, Information, and Knowledge. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 67(4):227-228 (2019)


(101)             Warner C:

Knowledge Wisdom Excellence Service.. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia, 2003, 91(4):16-16.


(102)             Alagz A, Ortakarpuz M:

Corporate Wisdom and Reporting Based On Informal Knowledge,XI. European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences. (2016).


(103)             Alagz A, Ortakarpuz M:

Corporate Wisdom and Reporting Based On Informal Knowledge,XI. European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences. (2016).


(104)             Zavalina, Oksana L:

and Kim, Jeonghyun and Wang, Xiaoguang and Cheng, Qikai:Organizing Big Data, Information, and Knowledge,Association for Computing Machinery,579”V580,(2020)


(105)             Francomano E C:

Bodies of Knowledge: Wisdom, Personification, and Memory. Palgrave Macmillan US. (2008).


(106)             Smith P F, Ross D A :

Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom in Public Health Surveillance. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice Jphmp,18(3):193 (2012).


(107)             Maxwell N Science:

Knowledge: Wisdom and the Public Good, Scientists for Global Responsibility Newsletter. (2003)


(108)             J Rasco:

The Governance of Data, Information and Knowledge, in the Digital age, International Journal of Business Strategy and Automation. (2020)


(109)             Molta, Dave:

Knowledge, wisdom and wannabe tech managers. Network Computing. (1998)


(110)             Navarro M , Ayuso B L , EP Arís, et al:

Una revisión de la Cadena Datos-Información-Conocimiento desde el Pragmatismo de Peirce. Documentación De Las Ciencias De La Información. 38: 153-177.(2015)


(111)             Nerkiz M:



(112)             Denis, Pombriant:

Data, Information and Knowledge. Computer Law Review International,(2013).


(113)             Beynon-Davies P:

Data, information and knowledge. (2013)


(114)             Paul, Cooper:

Data, information and knowledge. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. (2010).


(115)             Perkins D:

Tomorrow's learning: the place of information, knowledge and wisdom.


(116)             Ravat U P , Thakkar D , Dodiya I:

The Public Library as an Information Knowledge Center, Enterpreneurship in Library and information services.(2021).


(117)             Igor Belamaric:

Igor's reflections (22) Knowledge, Wisdom and Shipbuilders. (2009).


(118)             J Zvárová, A Veselý, Vajda I:

Data, Information and Knowledge. Few Body Systems. (2009).


(119)             Dasgupta S:

Disentangling data, information and knowledge. Big Data and Information Analytics, 1(1), 7-7,(2017).


(120)             Joseph S M S:

Data, Information, and Knowledge. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, (2008).


(121)             Kock N:

Data, Information and Knowledge.(2007).


(122)             Lee J A:

Data, information, and knowledge, The Lancet Oncology. (2002).


(123)             Frieder Nake:

Data, Information, and Knowledge(2001)

(124)             D Landa:

Information, Knowledge, and Deliberation. Political Science and Politics, 52(4):1-4,(2019).


(125)             A Wada:

Stimulating "Knowledge"; "Wisdom" and "Mind" Each other.tits,1999, 4(10):42-43.


(126)             Sobolev B, L. Kuramoto :



(127)             Chen X, Wang D:

The Spaces of Data, Information, and Knowledge. Computer Science. (2014).


(128)             Joseph, G:

Tennyson's Concepts of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Pallas Athene. Modern Philology, 69(4), 314-322. (1972)


(129)             Balloni, A. J, A. Targowski:

Challenges and Reflections on Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Societies & Sociotechnical Systems.(2010).


(130)             Sugiyama S:

Intangible capital management method as dynamic knowledge wisdom. Intellectual Capital Strategy Management for Knowledge Based Organizations, (2013).


(131)             Langefors, B:

Distinction between data and information/knowledge.Westbury Subscription Services(1987).


(132)             Bumbaru D:

Data or Information or Knowledge or Wisdom? Heritage Conservation in an Age of Confusion. (2020)


(133)             Tennison B:

Understanding data, information, and knowledge.(2013).


(134)             Gonzalez D:

Data and decision making: information & knowledge,3rd Annual Forum on Asset Management IET, (2013).


(135)             Puentes R V, O. F. Aquino, A Q Neto:

Professionalization of professors: knowledge, wisdom and necessary abilities to teaching, Educar Em Revista (2015).


(136)             Chen, Min, Ebert:

Data, Information, and Knowledge in Visualization. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, (2009).


(137)             Malik H:

Knowledge, Wisdom, and Habit in Plato, Aristotle, Buddha, and Proust. International Journal of the Humanities, 2007, 3(6):39-44.


(138)             Balloni Antonio, Targowski Andrew:

Challenges and Reflections on Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Societies & Sociotechnical Systems. (2010).


(139)             Klimešová, Dana:

Data, information and knowledge transformation. (2009).


(140)             Goria Stéphane , Humbert Pierre, Benoît Roussel:

Information, Knowledge and Agile Creativity. (2019).


(141)             Wright, Andrew:

The Contours of Critical Religious Education: Knowledge, Wisdom, Truth. British Journal of Religious Education. 25. 279-291. (2003)


(142)             Sanders, John:

Defining Terms: Data, Information and Knowledge. (2016)


(143)             Sobolev, Boris:

How knowledge and data inform policy and treatment. (2018)


(144)             Gawron, Valerie:

Measures of Data, Information, and Knowledge.Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 44:687-687 (2000)


(145)             Rooney David , McKenna, Bernard:

Knowledge, wisdom and intellectual leadership: A question of the future and knowledge-based sustainability.International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital. 6. 10.1504/IJLIC.2009.021720. (2009)


(146)             Bemmel, J:

Medical Data, Information, and Knowledge.Methods of information in medicine. 27. 109-10. 10.1055/s-0038-1635529. (1988).


(147)             Barr, Robert:

Data, information and knowledge in GIS. (1996).


(148)             Jiangping Chen , Wei Lu , Zavalina Oksana:

Workshop on Organizing Data, Information, and Knowledge in Big Data Environments. 459-460. 10.1109/JCDL.2019.00118. (2019).


(149)             Metzger, Stephen:

Gerard of Abbeville, Secular Master, on Knowledge, Wisdom and Contemplation (2 vols). 10.1163/9789004342477. (2017).


(150)             Bamikole, Lawrence:

Knowledge/Wisdom Distinction: Implications for Development Oriented Education. (2021).


(151)             McSweeney, Alan:

Data, Information And Knowledge Management Framework And The Data Management Book Of Knowledge (DMBOK). (2019).


(152)             Anwar Jamil , Hasnu SAF , Janjua Saquib:

Knowledge, Wisdom, Leadership and Vision: A Conceptual Framework for Learning Organizations.World Applied Sciences Journal. 28. 56-65. 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.28.01.1932. (2013).


(153)             Bird Colin , Coles Simon , Day Aileen , Frey Jeremy , Whitby Richard:

Extracting data, information, and knowledge from an ELN. (2014).


(154)             Gray W A , Jeffery KG , Shao J:

Sharing Data, Information and Knowledge.(2021).


(155)             Lee, Jong Jae:

Formalization of information: knowledge and belief.Economic Theory. 66 (2018).


(156)             Kanehisa Minoru , Goto Susumu , Sato Yoko , Kawashima Masayuki , Furumichi Miho , Tanabe Mao:

Data, information, knowledge and principle: back to metabolism in KEGG.Nucleic Acids Res 42: D199-D205. Nucleic acids research. 42. 10.1093/nar/gkt1076. (2013).


(157)             Papagiannis, Nicholas:

Data‐Informed Creative.10.1002/9781119628682.ch5. (2020)


(158)             Razniewski Simon , Tandon Niket , Varde Aparna:

Information to Wisdom: Commonsense Knowledge Extraction and Compilation.1143-1146. 10.1145/3437963.3441664. (2021).


(159)             Almeida Paul , Hohberger Jan , Parada:

Pedro.Informal Knowledge and Innovation. 10.1002/9781119207245.ch18. (2015).


(160)             Pradeepa, D:

Information/Knowledge Society. (2015).


(161)             Dompere, Kofi:

Information Measurement and Entropy in Information-Knowledge Certainty. (2019).


(162)             Nataliya Burmistrova , Filimonov Viacheslav:

Collective Teaching of Mathematics and Informal Knowledge. International Multi-Conference on Engineering, Computer and Information Sciences (SIBIRCON). (2019).


(163)             Andel Pek , Fatović-Ferencić Stella , Holubar Karl:

"Evidence based medicine" - How it relates to knowledge, wisdom and serendipity.Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 114. 468-70. (2002).


(164)             Erickson Scott , Rothberg Helen:

Data, Information, and Knowledge: Developing an Intangible Assets Strategy. 10.4018/978-1-5225-7501-6.ch023. (2019).


(165)             Walker Derek , Christenson Dale:

Knowledge wisdom and networks: A project management centre of excellence example.The Learning Organization. 12. 275-291. 10.1108/09696470510592520. (2005).


(166)             Abril, Raul:

The Quality Attribution in Data, Information and Knowledge.Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management. 1. 10.4018/978-1-59904-931-1.ch129. (2010).


(167)             Hasking Penelope , Boyes Mark , Lewis Stephen:

The Language of Self-Injury: A Data-Informed Commentary. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 209. 233-236. 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001251. (2021).


(168)             Kirjushina, Olga:

Development of scientific and information knowledge bases in education.KANT. 35. 245-250. 10.24923/2222-243X.2020-35.51. (2020)


(169)             Sirong Li , Zijun Zhou , Zuoxiu Tie , Bing Wang , Meng Ye , Lei Du , Ran Cui , Wei Liu , Cuihong Wan , Quanyi Liu , Sheng Zhao , Quan Wang , Yihong Zhang , Shuo Zhang , Huigang Zhang , Yan Du , Hui Wei:

Data-informed discovery of hydrolytic nanozymes. (2020)


(170)             Kannan, S:

Managing Knowledge Wisdom - The Next Step in Knowledge Management for the Ageing Workforce Phenomenon.Proceedings of the European Conference on Knowledge Management, ECKM. 530-539. (2010)


(171)             Spence, Edward:

Information, knowledge and wisdom: Groundwork for the normative evaluation of digital information and its relation to the good life.Ethics and Information Technology. 13. 261-275. 10.1007/s10676-011-9265-7. (2011).


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Capitalizing Data, Information and Knowledge on Mechanical Experiments through Ontologies. INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR INFORMATION PROCESSING -PUBLICATIONS- IFIP. (2013).


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Some Reflections on the Concept and the Measurement of Entropy in Information-Knowledge System. (2019).


(350)             Paraskevas Tsangaratos,I. Koumantakis:

The value of geological data, information and knowledge in producing landslide susceptibility maps.13 th International Congress of the Geological Society of Greece (2016).


(351)             Niall Teskey:

User models and world models for data, information, and knowledge.Inf. Process. Manag. 25(1989).


(352)             Ya Wang,Yanmei Yang:

Research on Innovation of Agricultural Big Data Information Transmission. 2020 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Smart Grid (ICWCSG) (2020).


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Aspects of a systemic philosophy of knowledge: From social facts to data, information and knowledge.Kybernetes the International Journal of Systems & Cybernetics 31.7/8(2002):1099-1120.


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Re‐referrals to a Psychosocial Oncology Department: A Data‐Informed Approach to Practice.Psycho‐Oncology 30.3(2021).


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The Data-Informed Platform for Health.(2017)


(356)             Dijana Karuovic,Dragana Glusac,Dragica Radosav,Dragan Grahovac:

Use of informal knowledge sources and net generation.International Conference on Computers Communications & Control IEEE, (2016).


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(359)             Edyta Kulej-Dudek,Anna Wiśniewska-Sałek:



(360)             Pamela Schmidt,Jia Feng,Ronald D. Freeze:

Geographic Data Informs Funding and Management of Metro Bike Share System.Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. (2021).


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Processing Medical Data, Information and Knowledge: New Opportunities in the Information Society.Methods of Information in Medicine 40.04(2001):272-274.


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Data, information, and indicators.  Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 22.6(2007):471-472.


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A Data-informed Public Health Policy-Makers Platform.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17. (2020).


(364)             Gautam Mitra,Nikitas-Spiros Koutsoukis:

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(366)             Christian Bach,Salvatore Belardo:

Scientific and Philosophical Aspects of Information and the Relationships among Data, Information, and Knowledge.(2003).


(367)             Md. Saidur Rahaman,Md. Mizanur Rahman,Iqbal Hossain Moral:

Informative knowledge and challenges of home quarantine during COVID-19 in Bangladesh. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation17.4:354. (2020)


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Practice of Document Information Knowledge Service Oriented to Metrology Research Innovation.(2020).


(369)             YX Zhong:

On the Laws of Information-Knowledge-Intelligence Transforms .Journal of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications(2007).


(370)             Edward Szczerbicki:

Intelligent Information, Knowledge, and Technology Management.Cybernetics and Systems 37.6(2006):505-508.


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Towards a Grid Information Knowledge Base.Conference on Coregrid Springer-Verlag, 2006.


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Possible parallels between visual representations and informal knowledge." BSRLM Conference Nov-2015 (2015).


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Practice and its informing knowledge: An Aristotelian understanding. 2007.


(375)             Heiner Müller-Merbach:

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From Knowledge to Wisdom: An Economic Perspective.(2020).


(378)             Victor Manuel Marí:

Building knowledge from the margins: information, knowledge and social movements.Transinformação 24.1:61-64.(2012)


(379)             Zaki Malik, Khayyam Hashmi,Erfan Najmi,Abdelmounaam Rezgui:

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(380)             Xiao Luo,Yi-Chun Chen:

A Unified Approach to Information, Knowledge, and Stability.Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings Econometric Society, 2004.


(381)             Waad Subber,Sayan Ghosh,Piyush Pandita,Liping Wang:

Data-Informed Decomposition for Localized Uncertainty Quantification of Dynamical Systems. (2020).


(382)             Mercy Adeyeye,Yazid Abdullahi Abubakar,Jay Mitra:

Informal Knowledge Institutions and Market Innovation by Knowledge-Intensive Businesses." Nigerian Journal of Technological Research 10.2:43.(2015)


(383)             Michael Schandorf:

On Information & Knowledge, Thinking-Together, and Mindfulness as Metacognition.Central States Communication Association CSCA (2015).


(384)             Atsushi Sato,Runhe Huang:

A Generic Formulated KID Model for Pragmatic Processing of Data, Information, and Knowledge.Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing & IEEE Intl Conf on Autonomic & Trusted Computing & IEEE Intl Conf on Scalable Computing & Communications & Its Associated Workshops IEEE. (2016).


(385)             Mandy M Archibald,Michael T Lawless,Rachel Ambagtsheer,Alison Kitson:

Understanding consumer perceptions of frailty screening to inform knowledge translation and health service improvements." Age and Ageing (2020).


(386)             Jeremy Adams:

Communication, Information, Knowledge, and the Learning Organization. 2007.


(387)             Shijing Hu,Yucong Duan,Mengmeng Song:

Essence Computation Oriented Multi-semantic Analysis Crossing Multi-modal DIKW Graphs.10.1007/978-3-030-67537-0_20. (2021).


(388)             Yucong Duan:

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(389)             Yucong Duan:

Towards a Periodic Table of conceptualization and formalization on State, Style, Structure, Pattern, Framework, Architecture, Service and so on.133-138. 10.1109/SNPD.8935653. (2019)


(390)             Yucong Duan:

Existence Computation: Revelation on Entity vs. Relationship for Relationship Defined Everything of Semantics.139-144. 10.1109/SNPD.8935728. (2019)


(391)             Yucong Duan:

Towards a Periodic Table of conceptualization and formalization on concepts of State, Style, Structure, Pattern, Framework, Architecture, Service, etc., based on Existence Computation and Relationship Defined Everything of Semantic.10.13140/RG.2.2.22851.04644.


(392)             Yucong Duan:

Really necessarily clarify semantics of DIKW concepts or NO?10.13140/RG.2.2.15906.56004.